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What were the long term causes of the Thirty Years War?

Long-term causes of the war may be ascribed to the growing social, economic and religious instability during the sixteenth century. In this period, Germany enjoyed relative stability, whilst neighbouring France was beleaguered by the war of religion from 1562 to 1598.

Why was the 30 Years War the deadliest up to that time?

As brutal as the fighting was in the Thirty Years’ War, hundreds of thousands died as a result of famine caused by the conflict as well as an epidemic of typhus, a disease that spread rapidly in areas particularly torn apart by the violence.

What were three results of the Thirty Years War?

As a result of the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648), Switzerland and the Netherlands became independent; Germany became fragmented and its population was greatly reduced; and France soon became a dominant power in western continental Europe. The war also saw Spain begin to decline as a colonial power.

What was the largest effect of the Thirty Years War?

The general results of the war may be said to have been a tremendous decrease in German population; devastation of German agriculture; ruin of German commerce and industry; the breakup of the Holy Roman Empire, which was a mere shell in the succeeding centuries; and the decline of Hapsburg greatness.

What were the causes and results of the Thirty Years War quizlet?

It began as a religious war between Protestants and Catholics within the Holy Roman Empire, but spread into an international political conflict when catholic France sides with Protestants. Ends with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. Began the 30 years war by trying to pacify the Calvinistic Palatinate.

What happened during the Thirty Years War?

The Thirty Years’ War took place largely within the Holy Roman Empire from 1618 to 1648. One of the most destructive wars in European history, it caused an estimated 4.5 to 8 million deaths, while some areas of Germany experienced population declines of over 50%.

What were the major conflicts in the Thirty Years War?

From 1618 through 1625, the conflict was largely a German civil war, with Protestant German states fighting the Austrian Hapsburgs, their German Catholic allies, and Catholic Spain. While issues of political control were involved in the fighting, they centered on questions of religion.

How did the Thirty Years War caused the Enlightenment?

The war impacted society in profound ways. It weakened the concept of the divine right of kings, which was the belief that all monarchs had been put into power by the will of God and were not subject to Earthly power. The Thirty Years’ War created conditions under which the Enlightenment blossomed.

How did Emperor Ferdinand II cause the Thirty Years War?

The war began when the newly elected Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples, and the Protestant states banded together to revolt against him.

What Treaty ended the 30 Years War?

the Treaty of Westphalia

The Thirty Years’ War ended with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, which changed the map of Europe irrevocably. The peace was negotiated, from 1644, in the Westphalian towns of Münster and Osnabrück. The Spanish-Dutch treaty was signed on January 30, 1648.

What are the four phases of the Thirty Years War?

The Four Phases of the Thirty Years War

  • Phase One: The Bohemian Phase (1618-1625)
  • Phase Two: The Danish Phase (1625-1629)
  • Phase Three: The Swedish Phase (1630-1635)
  • Phase Four: The French Phase (1635-1648)

Why was the Treaty of Westphalia so important?

The Peace of Westphalia is regarded as a milestone in the development toward tolerance and secularization. This settlement also strengthened the imperial Estates: they could enter into foreign alliances and decide important matters, such as peace and war, along with the emperor.

Why did France join the Thirty Years War?

France had both political and religious motivations for becoming involved in the 30 years war. The 30 years war was an effort to stabilize the power of the Holy Roman Empire and to suppress the growing anti Catholic movement of the Protestant Reformation.

Who led the French in the Thirty Years War?

Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister of King Louis XIII of France, made the decision to enter into direct war against the Habsburgs in 1634, but France suffered military defeats early on, losing territory to the Holy Roman Empire.

What did France do during the Thirty Years War?

France, therefore, needed alliances. In July 1635, France signed a treaty with Savoy, Parma and Mantua for a joint campaign in north Italy. The French Huguenot general, Rohan, was sent to help the Swiss Protestants in a campaign to overthrow the Valtelline.