Pre-Islamic cultural inheritance in contemporary Iran

What is the cultural identity of Iran?

Most scholars agree that the three main and fundamental pillars of Iranian national identity are: (1) Geography of this land, (2) Persian language, and (3) Muslim faith as the element that induced the spiritual and physical unification of Iranian historical identity.

Is Iran influenced by Islam?

Islam was brought to Iran via Arab-Islamic conquest in 650 AD and has played a shifting, anomalous role in this nation-state ever since. The ideas of nationalism, secularism, religion, and revolution are unique in this Muslim country.

What are the three types of Islam in Iran?

Islam in Iran can be categorised into two periods: Sunni Islam as a majority from the 7th century to the 15th century, and Shia Islam as a majority from the 16th century onwards.

What are the Persian influences on Islam?

It was for the sake of the Holy Qur’an and Islam that books of philosophy, mysticism, history, medicine, mathematics, and law had been written or translated into this language. Persians also contributed greatly to Arabic learning and literature.

What kinds of cultural activities are available in Iran?

Traditional holidays/celebrations

  • Nowruz (Iranian New Year) – Starts from 21 March.
  • Sizdah be dar (Nature Day)
  • Jashn-e-Tirgan (Water Festival)
  • Jashn-e-Sadeh (Fire Festival)
  • Jashn-e-Mehregan (Autumn Festival)
  • Shab-e-Yalda (Winter Feast)
  • Charshanbeh Suri.

How old is Iranian culture?

Iran is home to one of the world’s oldest continuous major civilizations, with historical and urban settlements dating back to 7000 BC.

What was Iran before Islamic revolution?

In the decades before the Islamic revolution of 1979, Iran was ruled by the Shah, whose dictatorship repressed dissent and restricted political freedoms. But he also he pushed the country to adopt Western-oriented secular modernization, allowing some degree of cultural freedom.

What kind of Islam does Iran practice?

Sunni and Shi’i are the two largest branches of Islam, with the overwhelming majority of Iranians practicing Shi’i Islam. About 90 percent of Iranians practice Shi’ism, the official religion of Iran. [i] By contrast, most Arab states in the Middle East are predominantly Sunni.

Is Iran an Islamic state?

The government of Iran is an Islamic theocracy that includes elements of a presidential democracy, with the ultimate authority vested in an autocratic “Supreme Leader”; a position held by Ali Khamenei since Khomeini’s death in 1989.

Is Iran the old Persian empire?

empire that dominated Mesopotamia from about 550 to 330 BCE. Most of the ancient Persian empire is in modern-day Iran.

What was Iran called before it was Iran?

ancient Iran, also known as Persia, historic region of southwestern Asia that is only roughly coterminous with modern Iran.

How old is Tehran?

Archaeological remains from the ancient city of Ray suggest that settlement in Tehran dates back over 8,000 years.

When did Iran become Iran?


The switch from Persia to Iran happened in 1935 when the Shah of Persia, Reza Shah, asked the international community to start calling the country Iran rather than Persia.

What led to the Islamic revolution in Iran?

The protests rapidly intensified in 1978 as a result of the burning of Rex Cinema which was seen as the trigger of the revolution. On 16 January 1979, the Shah had fled Iran in exile as the last Persian monarch, leaving his duties to a regency council and Shapour Bakhtiar, who was an opposition-based prime minister.

What caused the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran?

Leftist and Islamist groups attacked his government for violating the Iranian Constitution, political corruption, and political oppression by the SAVAK (secret police).

What were the causes and consequences of the Iranian revolution?

Islamic revolutionary protestors turned out by the hundreds of thousands and eventually drove the Shah from power. Iran was alienated from all of the western countries, including the US. Women’s rights drastically reduced. The monarchy was destroyed and religious leaders took long term control of the country.

How did the Iranian revolution affect Iran?

Iranian Revolution, also called Islamic Revolution, Persian Enqelāb-e Eslāmī, popular uprising in Iran in 1978–79 that resulted in the toppling of the monarchy on February 11, 1979, and led to the establishment of an Islamic republic.

Who ruled Iran before 1979?

One of the most dramatic changes in government in Iran’s history was seen with the 1979 Iranian Revolution where Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was overthrown and replaced by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

Who was the Shah of Iran before the revolution?

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Persian: محمدرضا پهلوی, pronounced [mohæmˈmæd reˈzɒː pæhlæˈviː]; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (محمدرضا شاه), was the last Shah (King) of the Imperial State of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow in the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.

Was Iran a democracy before 1979?

Prior to 1906, Iran was an absolute monarchy. From 1906 to 1979, Iran was a constitutional monarchy with a nominal parliamentary system.

Was the Shah a dictator?

The reign of Reza Shah was authoritarian and dictatorial at a time when authoritarian governments and dictatorships were common in the world and standard for the region.

When did the shah rule Iran?

Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, commonly referred to as “the Shah,” governed Iran from 1953 through 1979 as a secular and authoritarian rule.. The Shah rose to power after his father was forced to step down, and the Shah’s relationship with the U.S. flourished over time.

Who was the first Shah of Iran?

Reza Shah

Reza Shah Pahlavi
Reza Shah in the 1930s
Shah of Iran
Reign 15 December 1925 – 16 September 1941
Coronation 25 April 1926

Was the shah a reforming or a repressive ruler of Iran?

Mohammad Reza instituted reforms but presided over a tumultuous period. Discontent with his policies sparked rioting, allowing Ruhollah Khomeini to assume control in February 1979.