Was the Macedonian phalanx more effective than hoplites?

The Macedonian phalanx unlike the traditional Greek Hoplite phalanx was not engineered to defeat its enemy all by itself. The Macedonian success was not due to their phalanx’s superiority (with the sarissa pike). The Macedonian phalanx advantage was protection, but it had disadvantages.

Why was the Macedonian phalanx so effective?

They were just shocked that the wounds that the Romans were able to inflict with these short swords and the fact that they could just use these shields to get into the Phalanx.

How effective was the Macedonian phalanx?

So long as its flanks and rear were protected, the Macedonian phalanx proved unstoppable. The Macedonian Empire of King Philip II, prior to his victory at Chaeronea in 338 BC. A keystone to Philip’s success was his creation and use of the Macedonian phalanx.

What were some differences with the Macedonian phalanx compared to the traditional hoplite phalanx?

Hoplite phalanxes usually deployed in ranks of eight men or more deep; the Macedonian phalanxes were usually 16 men deep, sometimes reported to have been arrayed 32 men deep.

What made the phalanx strategy better than before?

The tight formation also allowed them to break through the ranks of the enemy army. The success of the Phalanx was dependent on the strength and discipline of the soldiers who made up the closely packed formation. This implies that the Phalanx was only as strong as the weakest soldier in the group.

What made the Macedonian phalanx more effective than the Greek?

The Macedonians asked different things of their phalanx(heavy infantry) than did the Hoplite greeks, and so the longer spears helped the phalanx achieve their particular role in the Macedonian battle tactics.

Why did the Macedonian phalanx fail?

At the Battle of Cynocephalae in 197 BCE, the Romans defeated the Greek phalanx easily because the Greeks had failed to guard the flanks of their phalanx and, further, the Greek commanders could not turn the mass of men who comprised the phalanxes quickly enough to counter the strategies of the Roman army and, after …

Why was the phalanx so powerful?

At close range such large weapons were of little use, but an intact phalanx could easily keep its enemies at a distance. The weapons of the first five rows of men all projected beyond the front of the formation, so that there were more spear points than available targets at any given time.

How was the Macedonian phalanx defeated?

Polybius on the Macedonian Wars gets into some of the nitty gritty, but basically the gist is that during the Samnite Wars, the Romans found that their phalanxes were being beaten by the Samnite light infantry and cavalry, who were used to fighting the mountainous terrain of Samnium.

How were hoplites different from earlier Greek soldiers?

Hoplites (/ˈhɒplaɪts/ HOP-lytes) (Ancient Greek: ὁπλίτης : hoplítēs) were citizen-soldiers of Ancient Greek city-states who were primarily armed with spears and shields. Hoplite soldiers used the phalanx formation to be effective in war with fewer soldiers.

Was Alexander the Great a hoplite?

Greek hoplites

The army led by Alexander the Great into the Persian Empire included Greek heavy infantry in the form of allied contingents provided by the League of Corinth and hired mercenaries.

What is the phalanx strategy and how did Alexander apply it in battle?

W hat is the phalanx strategy and how did Alexander apply it in battle? (Alexander’s phalanx formation created row after row of heavily armed soldiers into a solid wall of power that attacked the enemy head-on in the battle at Issus. The Persian soldiers fell in waves and Darius, their leader, retreated.)

Did Vikings use a phalanx?

The Viking shield wall (or skjaldborg in Old Norse) was a pretty conventional tactic used by the Norsemen in land battles. It entailed a phalanx-like formation of warriors who were up to five ranks deep.

Did Spartans use the phalanx?

Spartan Military Innovations. The hoplite phalanx, however, consisted of specially-armed infantry. They all wore bronze body armor, helmets, bronze shin guards, and all carried shields.

Why was the phalanx abandoned?

The assumption behind this question is that Rome initially used the hoplite phalanx in battle, but eventually abandoned it in favour of deployment in maniples, which were supposedly better suited for the hilly Italian countryside.

How long was a hoplite spear?

The principal weapons of a hoplite infantryman were a long ash wood spear (doru) and a short sword (xiphos). The spear measured on average 2.5 metres (8 ft.) in length and was fitted with a bronze or iron blade and a four-sided end spike (sauroter).

How heavy was a hoplite spear?

2 to 4 pounds

“The primary weapon of the hoplite, the dory spear was 7 to 9 feet in length, weighing 2 to 4 pounds, having a two inch diameter wooden handle, and tipped with an iron spearhead on one end and another iron tip on the other.

Did hoplites use swords?

Sword. As a secondary weapon, hoplites are known to have carried a short sword known as the xiphos which was made from iron or bronze depending on the era. This was used in the event of a broken spear, or if close melee combat was necessary.

How heavy was a Spartan sword?

It was a rather light weapon, with a weight around 450–900 g (0.99–1.98 lb). It was generally hung from a baldric under the left arm. The xiphos was generally used only when the spear was broken, taken by the enemy, or discarded for close combat.

Why did Spartans use short swords?

Traditionally much shorter than a Greek Xiphos the Spartan’s short sword would prove advantageous when in close quarter battle, with easier maneuverability, being able to inflict damage where a longer sword would be much harder to wield.

How long was a Spartan spear?

Spear (dory) –The main offensive weapon of the Greeks, was approx. 6-9 feet long and made of ash wood specifically chosen because of its lightness and strength.

Did Spartans use bronze or iron?

Bronze was mainly used in their armour (breastplate and, in particular, greaves. However, their breastplate tended to be rather heavy and so more commonly used were bits of hardened fabric glued together).

Do Spartans still exist?

But today there is still a town called Sparta in Greece in the very same spot as the ancient city. So, in a way, Spartans still exist, although these days they tend to be a little less strict and certainly not as good at fighting with spears and shields as the ancients.

How large was the Spartan army at its peak?

35,000 citizens

During the following centuries, Sparta’s reputation as a land-fighting force was unequalled. At its peak around 500 BC, Sparta had some 20,000–35,000 citizens, plus numerous helots and perioikoi.

Did Spartans use bows?

The Spartan hoplites cried foul. The mightiest warriors in ancient Greece had been brought low by the despised bow, a weapon they had traditionally viewed as the preserve of cowards and women.

Did Spartans throw babies off cliffs?

Spartans had to prove their fitness even as infants.

The ancient historian Plutarch claimed these “ill-born” Spartan babies were tossed into a chasm at the foot of Mount Taygetus, but most historians now dismiss this as a myth.

Who is the most famous archer?

In classical mythology, the best-known archers are Eros and Cupid, the Greek and Roman gods of love, respectively. They wield a bow with arrows that cause uncontrollable desire in whomever they hit. It’s a beautiful metaphor and what has made Cupid probably the most-depicted archer in art history.

Who was the Greek god of archery?


Apollo is one of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The national divinity of the Greeks, Apollo has been recognized as a god of archery, music and dance, truth and prophecy, healing and diseases, the Sun and light, poetry, and more.

Who was the ugliest god?


Hephaestus. Hephaestus is the son of Zeus and Hera. Sometimes it is said that Hera alone produced him and that he has no father. He is the only god to be physically ugly.

Was Artemis asexual?

– Artemis, goddess of hunt, was either aroace or a lesbian according to many people. – Zeus, god of the thunder, was bisexual. – Poseidon, god of the seas, was bisexual. – Dionysus, god of the parties, was bisexual.

What is Artemis’s bow called?


Artemis’ golden bow and arrows, are named Khryselakatos, “of the Golden Shaft”, and Iokheira “Showered by Arrows”. The arrows of Artemis could also bring sudden death and disease to girls and women, but later know to effect any human or lesser deity.

How can I be like Artemis?

Dressing like Artemis. Wear comfortable and sporty clothes. Try to stick to a color-scheme of grey and silver (silver is her symbolic color). Add moon accessories (for example, a necklace).

What are Artemis weaknesses?

Her primary weaknesses are her lack of mercy and her pride.

There are several versions of the death of her friend, Orion, but all seem to lead back to Artemis being his killer, either directly or indirectly.