What happened to Soviet citizens on Finnish territory before and during winter war?

What happened when the Soviet Union invaded Finland?

On November 30, 1939, the Red Army crosses the Soviet-Finnish border with 465,000 men and 1,000 aircraft. Helsinki was bombed, and 61 Finns were killed in an air raid that steeled the Finns for resistance, not capitulation.

How did the Winter War affect Finland?

The treaty ending the Winter War forced Finland to cede 11 percent of its territory to the Soviet Union, yet the country maintained its independence and later squared off against Russia a second time during World War II.

What land did Russia take from Finland?

province of Karelia

In 1940, following its defeat in the so-called Winter War with the Soviet Union, Finland was forced to cede its eastern province of Karelia to Moscow, and the region’s Finnish population was summarily deported.

How many Russian soldiers died in Finland?

126,875 soldiers

Accepting the armistice cost Finland 11 percent of its territory, including the country’s second city of Vyborg. The Winter War left 25,904 Finns dead. The Soviets lost at least 126,875 soldiers.

Why did the USSR invade Finland?

Finland believed the Soviet Union wanted to expand into its territory and the Soviet Union feared Finland would allow itself to be used as a base from which enemies could attack. Finland declared itself neutral at the start of the Second World War, but the Soviet Union demanded concessions.

What did the USSR want from Finland?

The Soviet Union demanded territories on the Karelian Isthmus, the islands of the Gulf of Finland, a military base near the Finnish capital, and the destruction of all defensive fortifications on the Karelian Isthmus. Helsinki again refused, and the Red Army attacked on 30 November 1939.

Was Finland part of the Soviet Union?

Finland as a part of the Russian Empire 1809–1917

During the Russian rule, Finland became a special region developed by order of the Emperor. For example, Helsinki city centre was built during Russian rule. Starting from 1899, Russia tightened its grip on the Grand Duchy of Finland.

Why was Finland not annexed to the Soviet Union?

Originally Answered: Why wasn’t Finland annexed by the USSR after WWII, like the Baltic states? The answer is simple: Finland fought back. Finland managed to resist Soviet attempts of subjugation and conquest. Finland was never conquered nor occupied neither by Germans nor Soviets.

Why were the Finns so successful in the Winter War?

The Finns proved singularly adept at leveraging their homeland’s harsh environmental conditions and geography in the course of their struggle for national survival. Finnish troops were nearly all highly experienced skiers and possessed a degree of mobility Soviet soldiers could not match.

What did Stalin say about Finland?

We cannot do anything about geography, nor can you,” Stalin declared to one Finnish official.

Who won the war between Russia and Finland?

The Soviet Union

Finland, suspicious of Soviet motives, refused – the outcome was the Soviet war of aggression against Finland by the name of the Winter War in 1939–1940. The Soviet Union won this war and compelled Finland to cede sev- eral territories – about 10 per cent of Finland’s area.

What side was Finland on in ww2?

Nazi Germany

As part of the Paris Peace Treaty, Finland was classified as an ally of Nazi Germany, bearing its responsibility for the war. The treaty imposed heavy war reparations on Finland and stipulated the lease of the Porkkala area near the Finnish capital Helsinki as a military base for fifty years.

What was Finland before it was Finland?

A part of Sweden from the 12th century until 1809, Finland was then a Russian grand duchy until, following the Russian Revolution, the Finns declared independence on December 6, 1917.

Why is Finland called Finland?

In fact, the original Finnish alphabet didn’t even contain the letter ‘f’, which was introduced to the language through borrowed words. One theory is that the name ‘Finland’ comes from the Old English word finna, a general term once used to describe people from Scandinavia.

Did Finland ever get its land back from Russia?

At the Treaty of Moscow (March 12, 1940), Finland had to cede Finnish Karelia and Salla, a total of 35,084 sq. km, to the Soviet Union, and “lease” Hango, with an additional 117 sq. km. In the fall of 1941, Finland regained these lost territories.

How many territories did Finland lose?

The Soviets invaded in the winter of 1939; the Finns fought back; after three months of war and hundreds of thousands of deaths, Finland agreed to cede around 10 percent of its total territory.

Does Finland still want Karelia back?

Some smaller groups, such as ProKarelia, continue to campaign for the peaceful return of Karelia. However, no serious political party has openly supported this goal, and Finnish politicians generally say there is no need for it, citing Finland’s peace treaty with Russia.

Why did Finland betray Germany?

With little or no support from other powers, Finland signed the Anti-Comintern Pact, an anti-communist agreement of mainly fascist powers, in November 1941. The main reason for Finland’s siding with Germany was to regain territory lost to the Soviets in the Winter War of 1939 – 1940.

Did Finland win the Winter War?

In a true sense, the Finns had won. They had notched one of the great defensive stands of military history, alongside Thermopylae, Masada and the Alamo. And the Finns were allowed to keep their army.

When did Britain invade Finland?

Britain declared war on Finland, Hungary and Romania on 5 December 1941, following the signing of the Tri-partite Pact and Finland’s alliance with Germany. However, all three of these countries were to change their allegiance before the end of the war.

Did the US declare war on Finland?

The United States was one of the first countries to recognize Finland after it declared independence in 1917, and officially established diplomatic relations in 1920.
Finland–United States relations.

Finland United States
Embassy of Finland, Washington, D.C. Embassy of the United States, Helsinki

What happened to Finland during World War II?

Finland was invaded by Moscow in November in 1939 in what became known as the Finnish-Soviet Winter War. Battles lasted until March 1940, when Finland, overwhelmed and outnumbered by Soviet troops, agreed to a bitter peace treaty, losing several territories but maintaining its independence.

Was Finland on Germany’s side?

In fact, Finland allied itself with Nazi Germany during the second world war not to prevent Soviet conquest but to win back territories lost to the USSR as a result of the winter war of 1939-40. The peace treaty that ended the war in March 1940 left Finnish independence intact.

Why did Finland join the Allies?

As tension increased between Germany and the USSR, Finland saw in Hitler a possible ally in gaining back its lost territory. German troops were allowed on Finnish soil as the Germans prepared for their invasion of the Soviet Union—a war that the Finns joined.

What side was Finland on in ww1?

At the beginning of the First World War, Finland was an autonomous Great Duchy within the Russian Empire.

Who switched sides ww1?


Italy changed sides and joined the Allies in 1915.

Who did the USSR originally ally with?

… World War II the chief Allied powers were Great Britain, France (except during the German occupation, 1940–44), the Soviet Union (after its entry in June 1941), the United States (after its entry on December 8, 1941), and China. More generally, the Allies included all the wartime members of the United…

Did Germany betray the Soviet Union?

The operation put into action Nazi Germany’s ideological goal of conquering the western Soviet Union to repopulate it with Germans.

Operation Barbarossa
Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Soviet Union
Commanders and leaders

Was Germany part of the USSR?

East Germany

German Democratic Republic Deutsche Demokratische Republik
Status Member of the Warsaw Pact (1955–1989) Satellite state of the Soviet Union (1949–1989) Member of Comecon (1950–1990)
Capital and largest city East Berlin (de facto)
Official languages German Sorbian (in parts of Bezirk Dresden and Bezirk Cottbus)

Why did the Soviet Union collapse?

Gorbachev’s decision to allow elections with a multi-party system and create a presidency for the Soviet Union began a slow process of democratization that eventually destabilized Communist control and contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Who destroyed Soviet Union?

The following four years of political struggle between Yeltsin and Gorbachev played a large role in the dissolution of the Soviet Union. On November 11, 1987, Yeltsin was fired from the post of First Secretary of the Moscow Communist Party.

Did Chernobyl lead to the fall of the Soviet Union?

The Soviet Union itself collapsed in 1991. The explosion in the reactor was a crack in the USSR that not only cost countless lives—the nature and delayed effects of radiation mean that the true death toll may never be known—but also contributed to the demise of a political system.