What is the social history of British popular opposition to Thatcher over the miner’s strike?

How did Margaret Thatcher deal with the strikes?

The government strategy, designed by Margaret Thatcher, was threefold: to build up ample coal stocks, to keep as many miners at work as possible, and to use police to break up attacks by pickets on working miners. The critical element was the NUM’s failure to hold a national strike ballot.

Who was Prime Minister during the miners strike?

Sir Edward Heath was Prime Minister during a time of industrial upheaval and economic decline during which he led Britain into the European Community.

What were Margaret Thatcher’s policies?

Nigel Lawson, Thatcher’s Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1983 to 1989, listed the Thatcherite ideals as “free markets, financial discipline, firm control over public expenditure, tax cuts, nationalism, ‘Victorian values’ (of the Samuel Smiles self-help variety), privatisation and a dash of populism”.

When did Thatcher come to power?

She was elected to the position in 1979, having led the Conservative Party since 1975, and won landslide re-elections in 1983 and 1987. She gained intense media attention as Britain’s first female prime minister.

How did the mine owners respond to the coal miners strike?

It was illegal for the owners to conspire to shut down production, but not so if the miners went on strike. The owners welcomed the strike, but they adamantly refused to recognize the union, because they feared the union would control the coal industry by manipulating strikes.

How many mines were closed under Thatcher?

In early 1984, the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher announced plans to close 20 coal pits which led to the year-long miners’ strike which ended in March 1985.

Why did British coal mines close?

The Tory Government shutting down dozens of pits in the early 1980s, costing thousands of people their jobs. Mrs Thatcher planned to shut down 20 more, which caused the mass miners’ strike of 1984-85. She opposed the strike, believing trade unions to be harmful organisations, and wanted to reduce their power.

Why did the miners strike in 1972?

The 1972 UK miners’ strike was a major dispute over pay between the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) and the Conservative Edward Heath government of the United Kingdom. Miners’ wages had not kept pace with those of other industrial workers since 1960.

How much did a miner earn in 1970?

Coal Miners (Pay)

Underground workers
1970 16.00* 26.1
1971 19.00 29.6
1972 25.00 34.6
1973 27.29 39.8

Why did Thatcher resign?

She resigned as prime minister and party leader in 1990, after a challenge was launched to her leadership. After retiring from the Commons in 1992, she was given a life peerage as Baroness Thatcher (of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire) which entitled her to sit in the House of Lords.

How much coal is left under the UK?

Coal Reserves in the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom has proven reserves equivalent to 1.9 times its annual consumption. This means it has about 2 years of Coal left (at current consumption levels and excluding unproven reserves).

How much coal is left in the world?

There are 1,139,471 tons (short tons, st) of proven coal reserves in the world as of 2016. The world has proven reserves equivalent to 133.1 times its annual consumption. This means it has about 133 years of coal left (at current consumption levels and excluding unproven reserves).

Who produces the most coal in the world?

The top six largest coal-producing countries in the world

  1. China – 3.7 billion tonnes. …
  2. India – 783 million tonnes. …
  3. United States – 640 million tonnes. …
  4. Indonesia – 616 million tonnes. …
  5. Australia – 550 million tonnes. …
  6. Russia – 430 million tonnes.

Jan 4, 2021

Does the UK still mine coal?

The last operating deep coal mine in the United Kingdom, Kellingley colliery in North Yorkshire, closed in December 2015. Most continuing coal mines are collieries owned by freeminers, or are open pit mines of which there were .

When did the UK stop coal mining?

The strike was officially called to a halt on March the 3rd 1985. The pit closures the miners had fought so hard to prevent began in earnest. In 1984 there were 174 deep coal mines in the UK by 1994 – the year the industry was finally privatized – there were just 15 left.

What year was the 3 day week?

The Three-Day Week was one of several measures introduced in the United Kingdom in 1973-1974 by the Conservative government at the time led by Edward Heath to conserve electricity, the generation of which was severely restricted owing to industrial action by coal miners and railway workers.

What caused winter of discontent?

The Winter of Discontent was driven by a combination of different social, economic and political factors which had been developing for over a decade.

How long did miners strike last?

The strike began on 13 October 1969 and lasted for roughly two weeks, with some pits returning to work before others.

What year was the miners strike in the 70s?

UK miners’ strike (1972)

Who was the miners leader in 1972?

He led an unofficial strike in 1969, and played a key organising role during the strikes of 1972 and 1974, the latter of which played a part in the downfall of Edward Heath’s Conservative government. A decade later, Scargill led the NUM through the 1984–1985 miners’ strike.

How many miners were there in 1984?

In 1984 there were 170 collieries in Britain, employing more than 190,000 people. Today there are fewer than 20 collieries, employing a workforce of around 5,000. There is no official record of what happened to the thousands of miners who were forced to leave the industry over the last 20 years.

How long did the Harlan County strike last?


WASHINGTON, Aug. 29 (UPI) —Striking mine workers and the Eastover Mining Company reached agreement today to end a 13‐month strike that had caused one death and economic hardship to the communities of Harlan County, Ky.

What significant event happened in 1933 that related to coal miners and their rights?

The Harlan County War, or Bloody Harlan, was a series of coal mining-related skirmishes, executions, bombings, and strikes (both attempted and realized) that took place in Harlan County, Kentucky, during the 1930s.

Why is it called Bloody Harlan?

Bloody Harlan. The name comes from the nearly century-long and sometimes violent struggle between coal companies and workers seeking to unionize. “Harlan is one of the locations used to undercut wage stability for the rest of the country,” Northern Illinois Univ. labor historian Rosemary Feurer said.

Why is Harlan County famous?

Harlan County is well known in folk and country music, having produced many prominent musicians. During the 20th century, it was often a center of labor strife between coal mine owners and union workers, especially in the Harlan County War of the 1930s. The coal mining industry began to decline in the 1950s.

Did the Harlan County strike succeed?

After a month of negotiations with no success, the 180 miners walked off the job and began what would be a 13-month-long strike on 26 July 1973. The main goal of the strike was the right of the workers to form a union as part of the UMWA.

What is a holler in Kentucky?

A holler is a a narrow valley between hills cut by a creek. A road runs parallel to the creek and people live on lots along it or along trunk roads that branch off into the hills.