When did Abu Bakr agree to lower taxes for the Arabs living under the rule of Byzantine and Sassanid Empire?

What was under Islamic rule by the year 750?

The period following Muhammad’s death is known as the Rashidun Caliphate that lasted from 610-750. During this empire a Muslim administration and government was established and ruled the Middle East. The Caliphate was governed by The Righteous Caliphs, or spiritual leaders.

How did the Arabs defeat the Byzantines?

Over the next fifty years, under the Umayyad caliphs, the Arabs would launch repeated raids into still-Byzantine Asia Minor, twice besiege the Byzantine capital of Constantinople, and conquer the Byzantine Exarchate of Africa.

Who started jizya tax?

Ahmad Shah (1411-1442), a ruler of Gujarat, introduced the Jizyah in 1414 and collected it with such strictness that many people converted to Islam to evade it. Jizya was later abolished by the third Mughal emperor Akbar, in 1579.

Where did Abu Bakr rule?

Abu Bakr was a senior companion (Sahabah) and the father-in-law of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632-634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad’s death.

Was Umayyad Sunni or Shia?

In 661 following the death of Ali, the Umayyad dynasty came to power moving their capital city to Damascus that had been conquered from the Eastern Roman Empire. They were a powerful Sunni family whose rule was rejected by Ali’s son Hussein.

Why were the Arab conquests successful?

The success of the Arab Conquests can be easily broken down into two factors: the strengths of Islam and the weaknesses of their enemies.

What group of people did the Byzantine Empire fight against for control of the eastern Mediterranean Sea?

During the seventh and eighth centuries, attacks from the Persian Empire and from Slavs, combined with internal political instability and economic regression, threatened the vast empire. A new, even more serious threat arose in the form of Islam, founded by the prophet Muhammad in Mecca in 622.

How did the Byzantine Empire ended?

Fall of Constantinople, (May 29, 1453), conquest of Constantinople by Sultan Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire. The dwindling Byzantine Empire came to an end when the Ottomans breached Constantinople’s ancient land wall after besieging the city for 55 days.

Who were the Byzantines enemies?

Throughout its existence, the empire confronted a vast array of steppe nomad military powers. The Byzantines fought major wars against the Huns, Bulgars, Avars, Khazars, Hungarians, Pechenegs, and Cumans and numerous minor conflicts with a host of other groups.

What weakness in Arab rule led to revolts against the Umayyads?

Some internal Struggles that led to a revolt in the Umayyads, include the fact that arabs were favored over persians and Byzantines in the Empire, as well as the fact that the empire was having financial troubles, and the Empire itself was so vast that rule in the frontiers was empowered by people of the frontiers who …

Why was the rashidun caliphate so successful?

The Rashidun caliphate constructed a massive empire out of many swift military victories. They expanded for both religious and political reasons, which was common at the time. One political advantage the Rashidun caliphate held was their ability to maintain stability and unity among the Arab tribes.

Why were the Islamic armies so successful?

Fred McGraw Donner suggests that formation of a state in the Arabian peninsula and ideological (i.e., religious) coherence and mobilization was a primary reason why the Muslim armies in the space of a hundred years were able to establish one of the largest pre-modern empires until that time.

What led to the decline of the Byzantine Empire?

The Byzantine Empire fell in 1453. The immediate cause of its fall was pressure by the Ottoman Turks. … Ironically enough, the major cause of the decline of the Byzantine Empire (what made it weak enough to fall to the Ottomans) was the Crusades. The Crusades were supposed to be Christian wars against Muslims.

What year did Constantinople change to Istanbul?


The 1923 Treaty of Lausanne formally established the Republic of Turkey, which moved its capital to Ankara. Old Constantinople, long known informally as Istanbul, officially adopted the name in 1930.

What was the Byzantine Empire known for?

Overview. Constantinople was the center of Byzantine trade and culture and was incredibly diverse. The Byzantine Empire had an important cultural legacy, both on the Orthodox Church and on the revival of Greek and Roman studies, which influenced the Renaissance.

What were the three most important contributions of the Byzantine Empire to world history?

1) Gave great power to the emperor. 2) Discriminated against Jews and non-Christians. 3) Allowed women to inherit property. 4) Protected some individual rights.

When did the Byzantine Empire stop being Roman?


The Byzantine Empire existed from approximately 395 CE—when the Roman Empire was split—to 1453. It became one of the leading civilizations in the world before falling to an Ottoman Turkish onslaught in the 15th century.

When did Greek became the official language of the Byzantine Empire?

Amongst other reforms, this notably led to introducing Greek as the Byzantine Empire’s official language in 610 under the Emperor Heraclius’ (ruled from 610 to 641).

Why did Greek become the official language of the Byzantine Empire?

When the western empire fell latin even faded out of use in the eastern empire almost entirely within a couple centuries. And was replaced largely by greek.

How did the Greeks influence the Byzantines?

Although the people of the Byzantine Empire considered themselves Roman, the East was influenced by Greek culture, rather than the Latin of the West. People spoke Greek and wore Greek-styled clothing. The emperors and empresses wore beautiful silk and purple-dyed clothing, with expensive slippers.

Why did the Byzantine Empire change their official language from Latin to Greek?

The Byzantine government and military had been restructured, and the culture of the empire changed, too. As of Heraclius’ reign, Greek replaced Latin as the official language.

What was the official language of the Byzantine Empire quizlet?

Greek became the official language of the byzantine empire.

What was the greatest challenge to the Byzantine Empire?

What was the greatest challenge to the Byzantine Empire? The most serious challenge to the Eastern Roman Empire was the rise of Islam. These forces defeated them at yarmuk and took control of Syria and Palestine.

When and why was the name of Constantinople changed to Istanbul quizlet?

Terms in this set (18)

The name Constantinople changed to Istanbul in 1453 when the Turks looked it over. It’s located in modern day France.

What city became the Ottoman capital?

The siege of Constantinople marked an end to the 1,000-year reign of the Byzantine Empire. Additionally, the city became the new capital of the Ottoman Empire, renamed Istanbul, and became a dominant international center of trade and culture. The seizing of this city was the first act of expansion for the Empire.

When and why was the name Constantinople changed to Istanbul in which country is that city located?

It remains the largest city in Europe. In 324, the ancient city of Byzantium was renamed “New Rome” and declared the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was renamed, and dedicated on 11 May 330.


Part of Roman Empire Byzantine Empire Latin Empire Ottoman Empire

What did the Ottomans rename Constantinople?

Why It Is Istanbul, Not Constantinople

A first it was called “New Rome” but then changed to Constantinople meaning “City of Constantine.” In 1453 the Ottomans (now known as Turks) captured the city and renamed it İslambol (“the city of Islam). The name İstanbul was in use from the 10th century onwards.

Why was Istanbul renamed?

On this day, March 28, in 1930, after the Turkish republic formed from the ashes of the Ottoman Empire, the most most famous city in Turkey lost its capital status and was renamed Istanbul, which derives from the ancient Greek word for “the city.”

What is Turkey’s old name?

Called Asia Minor (Lesser Asia) by the Romans, the land is the Asian part of modern Turkey, across Thrace. It lies across the Aegean Sea to the east of Greece and is usually known by its ancient name Anatolia.

What is Turkey called today?

Turkey adopted its official name, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti, known in English as the Republic of Turkey, upon the declaration of the republic on October 29, 1923.

Is Turkey an Arab country?

Iran and Turkey are not Arab countries and their primary languages are Farsi and Turkish respectively. Arab countries have a rich diversity of ethnic, linguistic, and religious communities. These include Kurds, Armenians, Berbers and others. There are over 200 million Arabs.

Are Turkish people Arab?

Turkish people are not Arabs. Turks and Arabs are not the same race. Turkish people are descendants of Central Asian Turkic people and indigenous people of Anatolia. Arabs are Semitic people of the Middle East.