When was Susa first mentioned in written documents?

When was Susa founded?


Founded 4400 BCE
Abandoned 1218 CE
Events Battle of Susa
Site notes

What is Susa in the Bible?

Susa also called Shushan, usually referred to as the citadel of Susa, was the capital of the Persian Empire and location of the Royal Palace, belonging to Persian kings, most notably King Xerxes.

How old is the city of Susa?

Susa was one of the oldest cities in the world and part of the site is still inhabited as Shush, Khuzestan Province, Iran. Excavations have uncovered evidence of continual habitation dating back to 4395 BCE but that early community grew from an even older one dating back to c. 7000 BCE.

What is Susa today?

Susa, also called Shushan, Greek Susiane, modern Shush, capital of Elam (Susiana) and administrative capital of the Achaemenian king Darius I and his successors from 522 bce. It was located at the foot of the Zagros Mountains near the bank of the Karkheh Kūr (Choaspes) River in the Khuzistan region of Iran.

Who rebuilt city of Susa?

The city was rebuilt by the Persian king Darius the Great (522-486). It was clearly his favorite residence.

Who constructed Darius palace at Susa?

Achaemenid king Darius I

The palace complex was constructed by the Achaemenid king Darius I in Susa, his favorite capital. Construction works continued under Darius I’s son, Xerxes, and to a lesser extent, Artaxerxes I (465–424 BC) and Darius II (423–404 BC).

When was the Book of Esther written?

4th century BCE

According to recent research, the Book of Esther was written in the middle of the 4th century BCE during the reign of Artaxerxes III (359-338 BCE), however the absence in Persian sources of any references to a king that had a Jewish consort created a new problem.

Who Wrote the Book of Esther in the Bible?

Tradition has it that the core of the book was written by Mordechai, its main character and the cousin of Esther, and that the text was later redacted by the Great Assembly (a Jewish council of sages in antiquity).

How old was Queen Esther when she got married?

According to one tradition, she was forty years old, while another places her age at seventy-four, which is the numerical value of the name “Hadassah” (Esther’s second name), or, according to another calculation of this numerical value, seventy-five (see above).

How old is Persepolis in Iran?

Archaeological evidence shows that the earliest remains of Persepolis date back to 515 BC. André Godard, the French archaeologist who excavated Persepolis in the early 1930s, believed that it was Cyrus the Great who chose the site of Persepolis, but that it was Darius I who built the terrace and the palaces.

Where did King Ahasuerus rule?

“Ahasuerus” is given as the name of a king, the husband of Esther, in the Book of Esther. He is said to have ruled “from India even unto Nubia, over an hundred and seven and twenty provinces” – that is, over the Achaemenid Empire.

What was the main religion of ancient Persia?

By 650 BCE, the Zoroastrian faith, a monotheistic religion founded on the ideas of the philosopher Zoroaster, had become the official religion of ancient Persia.

Is the book of Esther historically accurate?

There is no reference to known historical events in the story; a general consensus, though this consensus has been challenged, has maintained that the narrative of Esther was invented in order to provide an aetiology for Purim, and the name Ahasuerus is usually understood to refer to a fictionalized Xerxes I, who ruled …

How many times is God’s name mentioned throughout the book of Esther?

Or God’s name at least. The most curious thing about the book of Esther is that God is never mentioned. Not even once!

Where can the story of Esther be found in the Bible?

The story of Esther is also in the Christian bible, in chapters Esther 1 – 10. The Book of Esther is one of the few books in the Bible not to mention God. The annual feast of Purim is held by Jewish people to celebrate their deliverance and honour Esther.

Is the Book of Esther in the Catholic Bible?

In the Roman Catholic canon, Esther appears between Judith and Job and includes six chapters that are considered apocryphal in the Jewish and Protestant traditions.

What nationality was Queen Vashti?


Nationality Persian
Occupation Queen of the Achaemenid Empire
Known for Figures in the Book of Esther of the Hebrew Bible
Spouse(s) Ahasuerus of Persia

What is the name of the only queen Xerxes seems to have in Persian documentation?

Similarly, the narrative of Herodotus regarding Amestris (a name meaning ‘vigorous woman’ in Old Persian), Xerxes’ unique wife and only queen known in Persia, corresponds in many ways to Esther (‘star’ in Old Persian”) despite the unfavourable and biased description of the Persian queen.

Is Xerxes and Ahasuerus the same person?

Ahasuerus, a royal Persian name occurring throughout the Old Testament. Immediately preceding Artaxerxes I in the line of Persian kings, Ahasuerus is evidently to be identified with Xerxes.

Was the Book of Esther found in Iran?

There is no mention of it in either the Bavli or the Jerusalem Talmud and the Iranian Jewish tradition has not been supported by Jews beyond Iran.

Tomb of Esther and Mordechai
Tomb of Esther and Mordechai
Type Mausoleum
Location Hamadan, Iran

How tall was King Xerxes?

seven feet tall

Xerxes, the king of Persia, is portrayed as seven feet tall. Actor Rodrigo Santoro is only 6’2″. Not too shabby, but the other 10 inches are special effects.

What do we call Persia today?

modern Iran

Persia, historic region of southwestern Asia associated with the area that is now modern Iran. The term Persia was used for centuries and originated from a region of southern Iran formerly known as Persis, alternatively as Pārs or Parsa, modern Fārs.

Was Xerxes a real person?

Xerxes I, Old Persian Khshayarsha, byname Xerxes the Great, (born c. 519 bce—died 465, Persepolis, Iran), Persian king (486–465 bce), the son and successor of Darius I.

What did Xerxes look like?

Based on ancient carved stone reliefs remaining from the Achaemenid Dynasty, Xerxes is actually depicted as having long curly hair and beard, adorned with a crown and royal robe.

Is the story of the 300 Spartans true?

In short, not as much as suggested. It is true there were only 300 Spartan soldiers at the battle of Thermopylae but they were not alone, as the Spartans had formed an alliance with other Greek states. It is thought that the number of ancient Greeks was closer to 7,000. The size of the Persian army is disputed.

Did Xerxes burn Athens?

In September Xerxes, joined by many Greeks north of Attica, burned Athens. The city was almost deserted, for the Athenians on the advice of Themistocles had entrusted themselves to “the wooden wall” of their ships in accordance with a Delphic oracle.

Did Athens fall to Persian?

The Achaemenid destruction of Athens was accomplished by the Achaemenid Army of Xerxes I during the Second Persian invasion of Greece, and occurred in two phases over a period of two years, in 480–479 BCE.

Did Spartans defeat Xerxes?

The Greek forces, mostly Spartan, were led by Leonidas. After three days of holding their own against the Persian king Xerxes I and his vast southward-advancing army, the Greeks were betrayed, and the Persians were able to outflank them.

Who destroyed Sparta?

Sparta’s continued agitation spurred Rome’s war on the Achaeans (146) and the Roman conquest of the Peloponnese. In 396 ce the modest city was destroyed by the Visigoths.

Does the Spartan bloodline still exist?

The Maniots (inhabitants of the Mani Peninsula) therefore are considered direct descendants of Spartans. Almost three thousand years ago, Greece consisted of multiple ‘polis’ that were mostly controlled by Sparta. Spartans, as depicted in the 2006 movie 300, were highly trained fighters.

Do Spartans still exist?

But today there is still a town called Sparta in Greece in the very same spot as the ancient city. So, in a way, Spartans still exist, although these days they tend to be a little less strict and certainly not as good at fighting with spears and shields as the ancients.