Why are there multiple royal squadrons of the Companion Cavalry?

What is the cavalry Alexander the Great?

The Companions (Greek: ἑταῖροι [heˈtairoi̯], hetairoi) were the elite cavalry of the Macedonian army from the time of king Philip II of Macedon, achieving their greatest prestige under Alexander the Great, and regarded as the first or among the first shock cavalry used in Europe.

Who commanded the Companion cavalry?

The Companion cavalry was reorganized in two sections, each containing four squadrons (now known as hipparchies); one group was commanded by Alexander’s oldest friend, Hephaestion, the other by Cleitus, an older man.

Did Alexander the Great use mercenaries?

Philip II of Macedon was heavily reliant upon mercenaries until he had built up the Macedonian army which became his legacy to Alexander the Great. Alexander in his turn was confronted by Greek mercenaries when he invaded the Persian Empire. Mercenary service continued to flourish through the Hellenistic period.

Why did Alexander’s army refused to continue fighting?

Fearing the prospects of facing other powerful Indian armies and exhausted by years of campaigning, his army mutinied at the Hyphasis River (the modern Beas River), refusing to march further east.

Why did Alexander’s empire stop when and where it did?

Several factors caused the sudden collapse of the Empire that Alexander built. These include the early and the somewhat unexpected death of the great king, absence of a capable successor, rebellious generals, and the size of the territories Alexander had invaded.

What happened to the silver shields?

As their families were captured, the Silver Shields were tricked by Antigonus to betray Eumenes. Antigonus then buried a commander of the unit to death, and let the old soldiers be scattered around rough areas in Afghanistan, only to be killed soon by Antigonus’ secret command.

What finally stopped Alexander in his conquests?

His conquest continued through Asia until he reached the shores of the Ganga (Ganges) River in India. At this point, his army refused to continue further into India, exhausted and discouraged by heavy rains. Alexander was 32 when he died in 323 B.C.E.

Did Alexander the Great use archers?

Alexander inherited the use of Cretan archers from his father’s reign, yet around this time a clear reference to the use of native Macedonian archers was made. After the Battle of Gaugamela, archers of West Asian backgrounds became commonplace and were organized into chiliarchies.

What mountain range did Alexander Cross twice?

Strabo says​6 that Alexander passed through the land of the Paropamisadae after the setting of the Pleiades, established winter quarters below the Hindu Kush, where he built a city, and thence crossed the range into Bactria in fifteen days.

Was Alexander the Great White?

Plutarch on Alexander the Great’s Appearance

So it appears Alexander was a blond, rather than ginger. However, lion-colored might not really be tawny, but a strawberry blond or red-colored mane—lion hair that is generally darker than the rest of the lion.

Where is Alexander the Great Sword?

Also based on the ancient historical sources he came to the conclusion that the breastplate, the shield, the helmet and the sword found in tomb II belong to the armor of Alexander the Great.

What do Macedonia mean?

The name Macedonia derives from the Greek Μακεδονία (Makedonía), a kingdom (later, region) named after the ancient Macedonians, from the Greek Μακεδόνες (Makedones), “Macedonians”, explained as having originally meant either “the tall ones” or “highlanders”.

How did the Macedonian Phalanx work?

The phalanx was divided into taxis based on geographical recruitment differences. The phalanx used the “oblique line with refused left” arrangement, designed to force enemies to engage with soldiers on the furthest right end, increasing the risk of opening a gap in their lines for the cavalry to break through.

What is the only weakness of the phalanx?

Weaknesses. The hoplite phalanx was weakest when facing an enemy fielding lighter and more flexible troops without its own such supporting troops.

Why was the phalanx so important?

Ultimately, the phalanx was key in Sparta’s success as a small military force as it allowed them to fight bigger armies in close quarters.

Why did the Macedonian phalanx fail?

At the Battle of Cynocephalae in 197 BCE, the Romans defeated the Greek phalanx easily because the Greeks had failed to guard the flanks of their phalanx and, further, the Greek commanders could not turn the mass of men who comprised the phalanxes quickly enough to counter the strategies of the Roman army and, after …

Did Vikings use phalanx?

The Viking shield wall (or skjaldborg in Old Norse) was a pretty conventional tactic used by the Norsemen in land battles. It entailed a phalanx-like formation of warriors who were up to five ranks deep.

Did the Spartans use the phalanx?

Spartan Military Innovations. The hoplite phalanx, however, consisted of specially-armed infantry. They all wore bronze body armor, helmets, bronze shin guards, and all carried shields.

How did Romans beat Macedonian phalanx?

The Roman victory was achieved through the initiative of a tribune, whose name is unknown. He abandoned his part and attacked the rear of the Macedonian right wing, taking twenty maniples. This was the first time Roman legions were victorious over a Macedonian phalanx.

Who led 78 gladiators and over 120000 escaped slaves against the Roman army?


From what little we know Spartacus fought gladiator battles mostly in the Pompeii and Naples area. Seizing an opportunity, he and 78 other slaves, armed only with kitchen utensils, broke out of their barracks and escaped from a gladiator training center in Capua. Spartacus launched a rebellion from a base on Mt.

Who created the phalanx?

In the 16th century, Spanish troops armed with pike and harquebus introduced the first phalanx of the gunpowder age—solid columns of infantry known as battles.

How many soldiers are in a phalanx?

The typical phalanx was eight men deep, that is, eight rows of men, and any number of men wide. There are instances of both less and greater ranks of men in various battles though. The hoplite’s main weapon was a spear (600074) between seven to nine feet long.

What does phalanx mean in Greek?

The word phalanx comes from the Greeks, though they were not the only ones who used this formation. The Greek term literally means “log” and was used for both this line of battle and for a bone in a finger or toe. The word and its senses passed into Latin and then were adopted into English in the 16th century.

How do you beat phalanx?

No matter which class you are or which build you picked at the beginning of the game the best strategy. Here is to lob the fire bombs into the middle center mass of the phalanx.

What were three items traded by Greek merchants?

The most important trade exports were wine and olives, while cereals, spices, & precious metals Were Imported. Fine Greek pottery was also in great demand abroad and examples have been found as far afield as the Atlantic coast of Africa.

Traded Goods

  • cereals.
  • wine.
  • olives.
  • figs.
  • pulses.
  • eels.
  • cheese.
  • honey.

How do you say phalanx in plural?

The plural form of phalanx is phalanxes or phalanges. Find more words!

Does phalanx mean finger?

The phalanges are the bones that make up the fingers of the hand and the toes of the foot. There are 56 phalanges in the human body, with fourteen on each hand and foot. Three phalanges are present on each finger and toe, with the exception of the thumb and large toe, which possess only two.

Where is the proximal phalanx of toe?

The proximal phalanx is the toe bone that is closest to the metatarsals. Because it is the longest of the toe bones, it is the most likely to fracture.